FACTORS AFFECTING PRECIPITATION
Victor M. Ponce
|Factor \ Effect on||Moisture availability||Condensation||Coalescence|
|2. Global and mesoscale ocean currents2||YES||YES||-|
|3. Atmospheric currents3||YES||YES||-|
|4. Proximity to moisture source4||YES||-||YES|
|5. Relative continental position5||YES||YES||-|
|6. Season6 ||-||YES||-|
|7. Presence of orographic barriers7||-||YES||-|
|8. Land surface condition (texture, color, moisture content)8||YES||YES||-|
|9. Natural/anthropogenic atmospheric particulates9||-||-||YES|
1 The climate is tropical, temperate, or polar; a function of the Hadley and Ferrell cells.|
2 For example, the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation).
3 For example, monsoon-related precipitation, such as that of the Bay of Bengal, India.
4 Ocean or large inland lake (coastal precipitation); presence of salt particles (aerosols) from the ocean.
5 Continental location with respect to one or more moisture sources (for example, in Arizona, convergence of Pacific and Gulf moisture); lifting through horizontal convergence; frontal lifting.
6 Summer, fall, winter, spring; determines radiation balance; seasonally driven atmospheric cooling.
7 Mountain ranges, which act as barriers to the movements of continental air masses, with upwind effects (orographic lifting).
8 Determined by land-surface albedo, which conditions the near surface-radiation balance and makes possible thermal lifting.
9 Through volcano eruptions or fires, which increase the load atmospheric particulates, favoring the downwind formation of precipitation.