This if the fortress

of Chankillo

located in Casma,

Ancash, Peru,

at 364 km from Lima

and 15 km southeast

of Casma.

This fortress dates back

to 2,400 years.

Its main function

was to defend a temple.

I was not the traditional

fortress in the western idea

of defending a town or army.

Here, a temple was defended

as we will see later on.

In the lower part,

there is a solar calendar.

This is the oldest

solar calendar

in America.

This fortress

has three ovoid walls,

concentric in plan,

each one was about 8 m high.

In the first wall,

there were five entries

protected above

with lintels of carob wood

so the entry was like a corridor.

To enter the second wall

there is a labyrinthic passage,

with curves and corners.

The second wall

has four entries,

and the third wall,

which was properly

a retaining wall,

holding an earthfill,

has three entries.

Finally, in the central higher zone,

because this fortress

is located on top of a hill,

there are two circular

concentric towers,

two pairs of circular

concentric towers.

When this fortress

was in use

it was much higher.

Te passage of time,

the earthquakes,

the El Niño phenomena,

have caused the walls

to partially collapse.

We are in front of

one of the five entries

of the first wall

of the Chankillo fortress.

This is the place

where the archaeologists

led by Ivan Ghezzi

worked in the year 2001.

This is an entry

with carob wood lintels

that served to do

the radiocarbon dating

which gave the site

the 2,400 years of age.

There is a protecting wall

that the archaeologists

are obliged to do.

The original wall

can be seen behind.

This is a protecting wall.

Now these walls,

we should note

that the floor is 1 m below

of the existing base

and the ceiling 2 m higher

because of collapse.

We are in one of

the four entries

of the second wall.

These entries were

more labyrinthic

that those of the first wall.

Here was the entry,

by this corridor,

with lintels of carob wood,

and then one could go to

either right or left

but the labyrinth continued.

We are in front

of the third wall,

which was properly

a retention wall,

because on top

is holds a platform.

This wall is not as high

as the first or second walls,

because it served

as a retention wall.

This is one of the entries,

of the three entries

of this third wall.

We observe that all lintels

have been removed.

Here, there are no

carob wood lintels,

as they built in all entrances,

and the stairway

has collapsed

and cannot be observed.

We are now in the

upper part of the temple.

Here there is an access

to enter the first room,

which is this.

There is only one access

to the second room.

Then there is the third room,

which is the most important.

The fourth room is the one

to this side.

In the third room,

the archaeologists

led by Ivan Ghezzi,

found ceramic figures

which represented ritual battles.

So their theory

is that this fortress

was used for ritual battles,

and not for real battles.

We are now in the eastern part

of the solar calendar

of Chankillo.

We can see this field

full of remains,

the main one is this citadel

in the lower part,

This was the political

and administrative center

of Chankillo.

We can also observe

other buildings

and great plazas.

These great plazas were oriented

along the summer solstice,

which suggests that there were

ceremonies and celebrations

for the summer solstice.

We are in an area of

the Chankillo archaeological complex

which has not yet been studied

by the archaeologists.

But, we can observe

a very long and high wall

of about 9 m height.

The floor is even much lower

than shown here.

This place is in between

the fortress and the calendar.

It may have had some function,

but it has not been studied yet.

I want to reiterate that

Chankillo needs to be given

the proper value.

There is a project

in the regional government

of Ancash

for 5 million soles,

to preserve the site,

perform more research,

look for the placing of value,

restoring the site,

improving roads,

installing signs,

and promoting Chankillo.